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    Scale

Well streams may carry a considerable amount of formation water. The water contains salts, some of which may have a very limited solubility in water. Pressure and temperature changes may therefore lead to salt (scale) precipitation.

The PVTsim scale module considers precipitation of the salts:

  • BaSO4
  • CaSO4
  • SrSO4
  • CaCO3
  • FeS
  • FeCO3

It takes into account CO2 and H2S equilibrium pressures in the water, pH as well as the effect of other ionic species (primarily NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl). Pitzer's activity coefficient model is used.