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    Wax

Wax precipitation is a potential problem in offshore operations. Solid wax particles may increase the oil viscosity many orders of magnitude and wax layers may build up over time on pipe walls and inside process units. This leads to an increased pressure loss and may eventually cause plugging of pipelines and equipment.

From an ordinary compositional analysis it is possible to evaluate the wax potential of a reservoir fluid. An overview of the wax formation conditions may be achieved with the PT curve option.

It is further possible to tune the wax model to an experimental cloud point or to experimental wax content in the stock tank oil.

Quantitative flash calculations can be made, considering gas, oil and wax.

The amount of wax precipitate may be calculated as a function of P for constant T or as a function of T for constant P.

Oil with suspended wax particles, which exhibit a non-Newtonian viscosity behavior, can be modeled with PVTsim.

Viscosity plots can be made of wax in oil suspensions for varying shear rates. It is possible to account for the influence of wax inhibitors.

Fluids tuned up to match experimental wax precipitation data may be used in the PVTsim DepoWax module. DepoWax is a pipeline simulator considering wax deposition and the effect on viscosity of wax particles suspended in the oil phase.